Multiple myeloma may be diagnosed during the work-up of anemia, bone pain, bone fractures, or after an incidental finding of elevated amounts of proteins in the blood or excessive loss of proteins in the urine. Diagnostic delays of several months are common, due to the rarity of the disease. A bone marrow biopsy is usually required for diagnosis.
Monoclonal immunoglobulinS in serum and/or urine
See "Laboratory findings"
BM aspiration and biopsy
BM aspirate and biopsy:
plasma cells (normal: <4%)
Plasma cells may be present in clusters and sheets.
When the percentage of plasma cells in the aspirate is discordant to that seen in the biopsy, the number to be indicated in the medical record is the highest number obtained by either procedure.
Myeloma cells usually appear as atypical plasma cells: large-sized, binucleated, with hyperchromatic chromatin, and with prominent nucleoli.
The BM aspiration and biopsy is
useful also for:
- Flow cytometry of DNA and cytoplasmic Ig
- Plasma cell labeling index
It measures the proliferation rate of the plasma cells.
- Cytogenetic analysis
Bone marrow biopsy of patients with multiple myeloma, showing diffuse infiltration by neoplastic plasma cells (my personal archive):
Bone marrow aspirate from a patient with multiple myeloma, showing numerous plasma cells, which can be recognized by the eccentric nucleus and perinuclear halo (courtesy of Dr. Michael G. Bayerl - Hematopathology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center):
Perivascular location of normal plasma cells in the bone marrow (courtesy of Dr. Michael G. Bayerl - Hematopathology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center):
Malignant plasma cells may contain Dutcher and
Russell bodies. These are intracytoplasmic spherical inclusions which consist of
Dutcher bodies overlie the nucleus, whereas Russell bodies are seen within the cytoplasm. Mott cells contain multiple Russell bodies.
and staging of multiple myeloma. A retrospective and prospective study of 674
Am J Clin Pathol. 1987 Mar;87(3):342-55.
Bartl R, Frisch B, Fateh-Moghadam A, Kettner G, Jaeger K, Sommerfeld W.
This study evaluates the bone marrow histologic features of 674 patients with multiple myeloma, and it correlates findings with clinical features to determine prognostic factors.
Myeloma was classified into 6 histologic types and 3 prognostic grades:
1) Low grade:
- Marschalko type
- Small cell type
2) Intermediate grade:
- Cleaved type
- Polymorphous type
- Asynchronous type
3) High grade:
- Blastic type
t(11;14) and t(4;14) translocations correlated
with mature lymphoplasmacytoid and immature morphology, respectively, in
Leukemia. 2003 Oct;17(10):2032-5.
Garand R, Avet-Loiseau H, Accard F, Moreau P, Harousseau JL, Bataille R.
This study evaluates the bone marrow aspirates and FISH of 178 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma.
- The plasma cells of patients with t(11;14) exhibited a lymphoplasmacytoid morphology in 25 of 48 cases (52%)
- The plasma cells of patients with t(4;14) exhibited an immature morphology with diffuse chromatin pattern in 17 of 28 cases (61%)
t(4;14) translocation and immature morphology correlated with higher incidence of high tumor mass and chromosome 13 abnormality.
Diverse niches within multiple myeloma bone
marrow aspirates affect plasma cell enumeration.
Br J Haematol. 2006 Jun;133(5):530-2.
Nadav L, Katz BZ, Baron S, Yossipov L, Polliack A, Deutsch V, Geiger B, Naparstek E.
This study demonstrated that flow cytometry underestimates the number of plasma cells in BM aspirates by an average of 60%, when compared with morphological analysis. This discrepancy may be explained by the fact that bone marrow smears contain plasma cells associated with lipid-enriched spicules, whereas flow cytometry counts plasma cells in the fluid of the bone marrow aspirate, which is depleted of the lipid-adhesive plasma cells.
Conventional diagnostics in multiple myeloma.
Eur J Cancer. 2006 Jul;42(11):1510-9.
San Miguel JF, Gutiérrez NC, Mateo G, Orfao A.
Myeloma cell morphology and morphometry in correlation with
clinical stages and survival.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2013 Nov;41(11):947-54.
Seili-Bekafigo I, Valković T, Babarović E, Duletić-Načinović A, Jonjić N.
Auer rod-like inclusions in plasma cells in multiple myeloma.
J Clin Pathol. 2014 Jun;67(6):547-8.
Ho WK, Zantomio D.
Auer rods are rod-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions, usually observed in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Interestingly, most cases of Auer rods reported in multiple myeloma were associated with production of kappa light chains. They do not contain immunoglobulins/light chains. They stain negatively for myeloperoxidase (unlike AML) and positive for alpha-naphtyl acetate esterase and beta-glucuronidase, which suggests a lysosomal origin.
Plasma cell myeloma with unusual morphology - a series of 6
Eur J Haematol. 2014 Aug;93(2):165-70.
Gupta R, Hussain N, Rahman K, Nityanand S.
The authors describe 6 cases of myeloma with atypical morphology of the malignant plasma cells, which could be challenging for a pathologist:
- Plasma cells with deep nuclear convolution
- Plasma cells with irregular and deeply indented nuclear contour
- Plasma cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and Burkitt-like morphology
- Crystal-storing histiocytes
A systematic study comparing aspirate versus trephine for
quantifying plasma cell infiltration in newly-diagnosed myeloma.
Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):818-20.
Gabriel J, McGovern A, Robinson S, Wright D, Chevassut T.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is based on the presence of 10% or more of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. In this retrospective study, the authors reviewed data in 87 patients with myeloma, and compared the number of plasma cells found in the bone marrow aspirate to those found in the biopsy. Aspirate samples underestimated the number of plasma cells compared to the trephine biopsy. The causes of the lower number of plasma cells in the aspirate is possibly due to niche adherence or fibrosis that compromises the aspiration of cells. When enumerating the plasma cells in the marrow for diagnostic purposes, it is recommended that the higher infiltration number is used.
PLASMABLASTIC MYELOMA VS PLASMABLASTIC LYMPHOMA
It is often very difficult to
distinguish between a plasmablastic myeloma and a lymphoma with plasmablastic
differentiation. This is important, because the treatment of the two neoplasms
involves different strategies and drugs.
Factors favoring the diagnosis of myeloma:
- Presence of paraproteins
- Lytic bone lesions
Factors favoring the diagnosis of myeloma:
- Oropharyngeal soft tossue mass
- Positive HIV test
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA in-situ hybridization (but this is negative in about 40% of plasmablastic lymphoma)
Of note, plasmablastic tumors need to be screened for ALK (to rule out ALK large B-cell lymphoma) and HHV-8 (to rule out primary effusion lymphoma or large B-cell lymphoma arising in HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease).
CD117 (KIT) is a useful marker in the diagnosis of
plasmablastic plasma cell myeloma.
Histopathology. 2017 Jul;71(1):81-88.
Marks E, Shi Y, Wang Y.
Plasmablastic lymphoma versus plasmablastic myeloma: an
ongoing diagnostic dilemma.
J Clin Pathol. 2017 Sep;70(9):775-780.
Ahn JS, Okal R, Vos JA, Smolkin M, Kanate AS, Rosado FG.
Giampaolo Talamo, M.D.